It’s been little more than two years since I started off my PhD program here in Macau. One book chapter, two years, three awards, four papers and five international conferences later, I am more than happy, satisfied and honoured to be here. Really.
Will always be grateful to the University of Macau (UMac) for hosting me as I establish myself firmly in my third career as an academic – despite not being a spring chicken. The best thing about UMac is the beautiful campus, generous research facilities and a fantastic library (behind me).
Life is pretty simple out here – juggling between classrooms, dorm and library where I read loads of, and write some, academic papers plus theories and research methods, on topics ranging from social media, sociolinguistics, mass media and buddhist communication – all on Bhutan. And travel to academic conferences around the world where my papers are rigorously reviewed and accepted.
Why Bhutan? And why should the world care? Bhutan presents an interesting research site for for being the last country to enter into romance with social media and technology. Understanding what’s happening there will help the social scientific community to explain and theorise the influences on a society. Hopefully that would be our big contribution to the field.
Over the years I have perfected the art of air travels. Here are some tips from my long experience spanning 30 years, 35 airlines and 34 countries. 😎😎😎
BAGS – Travel light, which, of course, is impossible for many – especially Bhutanese. Avoid checked-in luggage. Seriously. They get lost or damaged. Sometimes you lose your connecting flights too. Traveling with a carry-on is possible. I once travelled for a month in Europe with a carry on, a suit bag and a backpack.
As for your laptops, opt for a backpack instead of the shoulder bag. It is more comfortable and better for your back – especially if you add papers, battery packs, tablets, books, notebooks, stationery etc. like i do.
DRESS WELL – Meaning no shorts, tee shirts or flip-flops – especially if you are travelling for official trips and conferences. You don’t want to give a bad impression to your hosts. Don’t overdress lest you feel uncomfortable. For me, a shirt works just fine. Jeans are best for traveling. They never look dirty. Slip-in shoes are a must – with many airports requiring you to take them out during security checks. Besides, as soon as you get on board, you can throw them away and be more comfortable and put them back on easily.
At times dressing well earns you a seat upgrade to business class if the flight is oversold. Yes, they judge the book by the cover (read as good looks in my case 😜😜😜).
WEAR A SCARF. On long flights, it gets freezing cold up there at 39,000 feet. And add to that the germs-filled cabins you breathe in for tens of hours. You need to protect your throat and neck. Catching cough and cold would be a disaster if you have to speak at your destination. Mind you, it is easy to fall sick from a plane journey. And it is not a nice experience.
You can use the scarf to cover your nose in case the cabin stinks. Not all airlines are Singapore or Cathy Pacific. Some really stink like a public toilet.
GET A NECK POUCH. You can slip in your phone, wallet and passport. When rushing to the airports or pulling them out over and over again at the security, customs and taxis, they can be easily misplaced. For an absent-minded guy like me who keeps forgetting things everywhere, this is a lifesaver.
YOUR EARPHONES. The headphones (and the blankets) that the airlines provide are rarely washed or disinfected, it seems. Be safe. Don’t forget your personal earphones and don’t forget to use them instead of the ones supplied on board. Likewise, your tray table has more germs than a toilet seat. Carry an antibacterial hand-wipe to clean the tray table and the armrest before you start using it.
AISLE SEAT PLEASE. If you have chronic backache like me, flights longer than 3 hours is a torture. Choose an aisle seat so that you can get up and stretch whenever you want – without disturbing others.
LAST AND MOST IMPORTANT. Enjoy the journey, cherish the moment, talk to others, make new friends – even on board, be helpful to strangers. And make a good use of every opportunity by doing your best and letting one journey lead you to the next. Trust me. It works.
Don’t be in a haste to get to your destination. Savour the journey. Cherish the process.
This is or students and educators in media, communication and sociology.
Here are some links to books and journal papers that I have published plus some recent news articles on middle path journalism, all of which might be of interest to you since there aren’t many in this field.
Sourcing and referencing are the biggest hurdles in doing any kind of studies in and on Bhutan – especially in social science. At the very least, hope these help you to expand your bibliography and save you from over-referencing of one or two sources. 🙋♂️🙋♂️🙋♂️
I gave a talk titled, My Childhood Dreams and Role Models, to a group of youths brought together by the Bhutan Sharing & Loving Youth (BSLY) and Generation Y. The message that I wanted to drive hone was the importance of having dreams and role models, and working towards one’s dreams. As parents, I am sure it is extremely frustrating when your children have no dreams, no ambitions and no directions in life.
I also touched upon the the power of imagination and empathy. Here are some extracts from the talk.
“Growing up, I was a restless kid with multiple dreams and corresponding role models. I wanted to fight like Bruce Lee, sing like Kishore Kumar and Engelbert Humperdinck, play football like Pele, become a pilot and fly to Moon like Neil Armstrong and look cool like Clint Eastwood. I was serious with my dreams too. I did Karate and Kungfu in college – before a shoulder injury forced me out of it. My dream to become a pilot went down when Druk Air didn’t even accept my enquiry – let alone an application. As for football, I barely made it to the college team. In short, I have failed to achieve most of my childhood dreams – except may be become a filmmaker just as Clint did.
Was it all worth then? Can we still dream even when we know that we won’t be achieving them? Yes, of course. Let me also add that as humans, I believe, that the day you stop dreaming is the day you die. To merely exist without a dream is to wander around like a zombie.
If life is journey, dreams are your maps – and role models, your companion.
The greatest beauty about having dreams and failing is that in trying to achieve those dreams, you gather rich skills and experiences that will be useful in other life’s endeavours. Kungfu and soccer gave me a physique that would sustain my professional life as an engineer – trekking to high mountains to build radio and TV stations. Later as a filmmaker I managed to travel to every corner of our country to document places and people. I endured physically demanding walks and works. My flying-to-the-Moon dream, on the other hand, made me fearless of any feats or challenges that normally would be considered impossible. I ventured into the untrodden path – never even doubting my abilities or achieving the targets. Thus, came things like FM radio networks and Bhutan’s first TV channel, which I spearheaded into our once Forbidden Kingdom. Plus I won international awards for documentaries – the first Bhutanese to do and show the way.
Of the several childhood dreams and fascinations, though, I must say that the filmmaker’s dream has been the one that, as I start growing old, is increasingly becoming the most valuable. Not only did I quit a successful engineering career and became a documentary filmmaker but becoming a movie addict as a child opened my world to the power of imagination and creativity. This power, which is either not present or suppressed in our education system, is an important skill. For me it has led to the power of empathy. We need empathy, and more empathy, in this world that is getting cruel by the day.
Basically the power of empathy or imagination is the power to put yourself in the shoes of someone whose life may not be as fortunate as yours.
It is the power that makes you a good human being. The power that drives you to keep striving for a better world. This power served me well when I started volunteering for Tarayana in Athang Rukha in 2007. I continue to be involved in the Olep people even now and we are building the second community temple in Lamga – after we have successfully made them sufficient in food and necessities. For all the imaginative power and empathy that I have developed and have made good use of it, I can only thank one of my childhood role models, Clint Eastwood, for it.
Just as the power of imagination is vital in life, an unimaginative mind can be dangerous and destructive. That’s why people in the government make draconian rules and later rescind them when something unexpected, unimagined and unwanted developments pop up. With some sense of faint imagination these mishaps can be prevented.
Lastly, disappointments and rejections. (I touched on this topic in the wake of the growing suicide among youth.)
I know disappointments are hard to handle – especially for a populace that is always on ego swings. There is a general misconception that the country, we have today, has become worse. While my generation often romanticize OUR time and good ole let me tell you that we have had our fair share of hardships and struggles – and failures, disappointments and rejections. I often say that I have failed more than I succeeded in my life. However, now that I have crossed the half-century mark (I am 51) I look back and I realise that more than achievements, disappointments have been my greatest teachers. They are not as bad as it appeared back then. So, if you are going through one just now, wait. Don’t kill yourself. When you are old enough like me, you will look back and see how silly those despairs were.
Let me also share my own experience dealing with both. In triumphs and achievements, I have attracted envies and enemies. It is true. But in disappointments and despair, I have found my true friends and family members. Especially as a Sharchop, I have cherished the extended family culture.”
“Therefore, do not look at disappointments and obstacles with a heavy heart or with a resigned soul. If you can persist, success will surely come your way.
Whenit does, however,
don’t let the success change you. And don’t let disappointments kill you.
Cry if you must. But don’t keep crying or sulking forever. Shake them off you and tell yourself, “Well! Enough now! Life goes on”.
Don’t be scared to dream. Don’t be shy to say you have a role model or that you admire someone. Sometimes to be able to dream is our only privilege.
I hope you will have many dreams and role models too – and unlike mine, you will be able to fulfil them. If you don’t, well, life goes on.
On the 50th Anniversary of the Foundation of Sherubtse, I wish the Royal University of Bhutan, teachers who taught, and are still teaching, there – and students and alumni a warm Tashi Delek on this impressive milestone.
It was on this day, 26th May 1968, that the Father of Modern Bhutan, King Jigme Dorji Wangchuk, planted the seed of a place that will be forever etched in many hearts, including mine – besides making a difference in even more lives.
Opening the school (then) His Majesty said,
“While religion alone had been adequate in the past to ensure happiness and well-being of the people, education has become essential in the modern world if independence was to be safeguarded and if it was to achieve prosperity”
Hopefully our people will never forget these words that sum up the essence of Sherubtse, and hopes of our King, which are forgotten or conveniently neglected that it pains me to the core as a citizen. I am not an alumni but I spent a wonderful year and half teaching there. It is a special place. Really.
Anyway, enjoy reading the full account of what happened on 26th May 1968 on this Kuensel report of 30th May 1968.
The Kuensel report also pertains to the opening of the Bank of Bhutan on 28th May in Phuntsholing where His Majesty stated that we should develop the habit of saving. Sadly we don’t do that even now.
The newspaper concludes with the Teacher Training Institute (now College of Education) inauguration in Samtse on 29th May 1968.
This headline might bring excitements in some people – and solace in others. A pay raise? Yes, of course, why not? It is about time. When was the last raise, anyway? With living standards increasing month by month – and not even by year-by-year, it is absolutely necessary. Right?
Well, think again.
Did the last pay revision leave us in a better position? I don’t think so. In fact, some of us might be in a worse situation than before. What guarantee is there then, that this time around, we would be able to solve our financial woes – once and for all? Are we not stuck in this vicious cycle of salary-increase-everything-increase zero sum game? Won’t it cause another increase in cost-push inflation of basic commodities in the market? I say we, although I am no more a civil servant now. But much of career spanning over 25 years has been in the government or in a government-owned corporation. I won’t be surprised if the talk of pay raise in the government has already prompted some unscrupolous owners to increase the rent from next month. Jaigaon merchants would have acted on it for sure.
I started my career in 1986 in the civil service with Nu. 875 as my take-home salary. And with that, not only did I have a comfortable life, I used to also send money to help my parents educate my two younger siblings and my cousins. My last salary with allowances when I left the government in 2013 was Nu. 45,000. Honestly, let me say that I was relatively ‘poorer’ in 2013 than I used to be in 1986. Meaning, I had very little spare cash. I don’t deny that life now is more comfortable than it used to be in 1986. But the cost of living in Bhutan now is ridiculously high for the size of our economy that, at times, it can be very stressful for everyone. Hence, I am not sure if we are happier now.
Rich gets richer – and poor poorer
For some decades now, irrespective of the pay revisions and so-called hydropower wealth, most of us are, in fact, stuck in the hand-to-mouth doldrums with no savings – and living under the illusion that we are better off than before, while in effect we are not. Instead, we unwittingly continue to fill the pockets of merchants and manufacturers from across the border – and the cash rooms of our banks. Offsetting the higher living cost through pay raise has, as a matter of fact, proven time and again, to be a complete failure.
The gap between rich and poor is further widened with each raise. This is because of the flat-percentage pay raise, which sounds fair but is illusory. Phrases like across-the-board were used, which were a total eyewash. For example, 30% hike for a 5,000 basic salary is just 1,500. But 30% of Nu. 50,000 comes to a whopping 15,000. The flat-percentage model is, therefore, seriously flawed. The new basic pay goes from 5,000 to 6,500 for a driver, and from 50,000 to 65,000 for a dasho, thereby increasing the huge gap even further. Any surprises then that rich are getting richer and poor poorer? The grocery store, however, doesn’t discriminate between the ‘servant’ and the ‘master’.
Furthermore, while the salary increase for many doesn’t even cover a week’s vegetable supply, for the high-income group it leaves a sizable disposable income. This additional liquidity triggers spending on imported goods and fuels massive foreign currency flights – especially on luxury items such as cars, iPhones, flatscreens and holidays and pilgrimage in foreign destinations. Ever heard of the Rupee crunch? Now you know one reason why it happened.
Meanwhile land prices in the urban areas of Thimphu has shot up by 10,000 times between 1986 and 2018.
A plot of land that I eyed in 1986 for Nu. 4,000 (which I didn’t have and so I did’t buy) is now valued at 40 million or 4 crore (US$ 600,000). It is cheaper to buy an island off the coast of Fiji in South Pacific than a plot in Norzin Lam. It is impossible for our salaried working-class to buy a house in Thimphu, or in any major urban areas with their monthly income. Hence, the mass exodus of educated Bhutanese people to Australia – especially from the teaching cadre.
One more point.
If the flat-percentage model creates disparity, a flat-sum-for-all, say Nu. 10,000 for everyone irrespective of grade, is not the solution either. It narrows the gap, no doubt. And if I have to advise I would choose the flat-sum version. However, the cost-pull inflation will still be there, as traders and landlords will raise the prices anyway.
The answer to the rising cost of living is not another pay raise for civil servants.
The way to go about is to control the inflation – especially house rents. Invest on a serious study to understand the root cause of high rents – and make adequate policies and enact stronger legislations. Start with a dialogue with the banks, building owners and builders. Experience from other countries have shown that if you control the housing rentals in an economy, everything will fall in place. I am not a banker or a real estate dealer. I am an engineer by background and dare I say that our construction techniques are outdated, out-of-place and inefficient and the industry is ridden with wastes, thefts, corruption and arrogance. All these have huge bearing on the final cost of the buildings. It is not only the interest rates on the loans.
Second, is to heavily subsidize some 10-12 essential items that people need to survive – fuel, electricity, rice, flour, milk, egg, oil, chilli, tea, soap, sugar etc. This way the basic needs for a decent life is secured for everyone – including the civil servants, and the benefits of the State resources are spread evenly across the whole nation – irrespective of whether you are a farmer, civil servant or a private sector employee. Once the prices of essential items are under control, cost of other goods are services will stabilise on their own.
More importantly, a cheap, clean and reliable public transport system needs to be introduced so that people don’t have to own, or use, cars. Whether it is done in form of a state subsidy, tax breaks or through public-private partnerships, this ought to be done – lest the much-touted revenues from hydropower export are returned to the sender in entirety for the petroleum products that flow in from there.
Of course, such bold moves from the elected government will not necessarily translate into votes at the polling stations because it won’t be visible. Both the voters and politicians seek instant gratifications nowadays. Visibility is what we all care for – in this era of selfies and social media. Nonetheless, I have faith in my compatriots and I am hopeful that there would be leaders who will dare to embrace this inclusive concept without caring much about polls or promotions – or for the civil servants caucus that determine whether your party wins or loses the general elections.
In proposing this, I am neither a genius nor crazy. The above ideas are tried-and-tested formula in many countries. In the UK and France, milk is cheaper than bottled water. Farm produces are highly subsidized there. In Italy city bus and tram rides are almost free. In Macau every citizen receives an annual check from the government when there is surplus budget or a high inflation. Kuwait gives 75 liters of free petrol per month to every citizen. Even in India, from where we get all our inspirations, the Food Corporation of India takes the role of providing essential food items at subsidized rates, while house rents there are strictly regulated by the Rental Act. Ever heard of the famous Ration Card?
Market controls won’t be a novelty in Bhutan either. Some of these were in place in the 1980s. Those days the Department of National Properties (DNP) would fix the rents of private houses after measuring the livable area. No houses could be rented out without their approval. For instance, in 1987, my rent for a two-room hut in Kala Bazar was fixed at Nu. 120, which was one eighth of my gross salary. Yes, I lived in Kala Bazar. Nowadays more than 60% of your salary goes into house rent. What a sin! Why was the DNP system discontinued? Was it because the decision-makers were also the house owners?
Until the 1980s, our own FCB – Food Corporation of Bhutan, had below-the-MRP food and home items sold and advertised (see picture below). But again, I guess, somewhere along, someone must have come up with a brilliant idea that FCB should sustain on its own because it is a “corporation”. In Bhutan, there is no such thing as institutional memory. FCB was established to redistribute food and sell at subsidized rates – and not to compete with grocery stores or make profits. It is supposed to stock up food while buying surplus productions to stabilize the market prices – and release them during poor harvest or in case of natural or man-made calamities. I ran into the current CEO of FCB some time back and he did mention about reinstating those food schemes. Perhaps again, he must have lost out to the many cannot-do people that flood our government and bureaucracy.
Inequalities and consequences
The salary raise for 27,000 civil servants is funded mainly from the revenues of the hydro-power export. Firstly, isn’t the country’s wealth supposed to be distributed equitably as per the Constitution? How sustainable is it to spend 60% of our annual budget on 4% of our population? Is that not happening at the expense other sectors such as culture or manufacturing? It is not enough for the government to fall back on free health and education while dishing out endless perks and privileges to a small section of the population, at the expense of the State funds. Little wonder then that there is a growing resentment against the system among the private sector. The scarier thing is that values such as sense of belonging to the nation, patriotism, ownership or social responsibility will decline once people don’t have physical place to call home. For Bhutanese, who are descendants of highlanders and forest dwellers, identity is a place. Distancing and alienation are already happening as more and more children of the Bhutanese diaspora make Australia and US their home.
Secondly, our market is largely state-driven and hence the civil service, and whatever happens around it or in it, has huge bearing on the economy. This aspect is often underestimated, sidelined or not understood at all. We are then dismayed that the private sector is never taking off.
The thing to note is that human history has not been kind to large social inequalities, and glaring divisions between haves-and-have-nots.
This can be really dangerous for a nation. More so now when information and fake news travel from finger to finger without passing through the brain. That’s why in Japan, the ratio between the highest and the lowest salary is maintained at less than four. And that’s the reason you don’t hear about “poor Japanese person”. They don’t exist in a country of 130 million. So Japan will never face a social upheaval like in the UK with this Brexit thing – or like in the US with ongoing White Nationalism. Discontent will manifest in strange ways, mind you.
In Bhutan the salary ratio between the highest and the lowest salary used to be around 8 times in 1986 but has drastically gone up to 30 times with the last two salary hikes. As a consolation we are, of course, much better than the Americans whose top CEOs earn as high as 400 times compared to their lowest-earning employees. This is one single big reason why there is some much resentment in the US against the traditional political class. The glaring social gap that I saw there (when I was a visiting scholar in UC Berkeley in 2014) was the reason why I predicted that Donald Trump would win when he announced his nomination. Every polls and pundits were for Hillary Clinton.
In conclusion, if we still decide to go ahead with the pay raise for civil servants, please do not forget to re-read this post after a decade (with few more raises by then) and ask yourself, if you are better off. I can bet anything that you won’t be – and lesser still will be those who are not in this rarefied and privileged world of civil service.
Conversely, how about that we all benefit equally? Maybe some of us will get lesser than anticipated but we can all be better. And above all, above all, the most important thing is that, we don’t have to take anybody’s drin (favour) as a nation.
1. I have not mentioned the negative impact on the growth of the private sector by civil service pay rise each time. It might sound more as a sour grape but the fact is, the salary increase in the civil service has clipped the wings of the private sector. Ask anyone from BCCI.
2. Not to boast but when I handled the pay raise for BBS in the early 2000s (we had to do our own because we were SOE), we went for a flat rate and not on flat percentage. Low ranking staff in BBS, especially, still remember me for that even to this day. TA/DA for drivers were raised to the level of junior officers on the argument that drivers have the same human body and physiological needs.
3. Look for the genesis of Arab Spring – as your homework. It was not for political change, as Western media put it. It was social inequality. It started from Tunisia and not from Egypt.
The massive investments in connectivity – of roads and air links, that the government has undertaken in recent years is perhaps the best thing that has happened in Bhutan in recent memory. I hope this continues to the next decade. Coming from an era when it took me once 13 days to reach Tashigang from Thimphu in 1982*, it gives me a chucklesome and nostalgic smile that now you could do it in a day. Not only.
With good and reliable air and land transport systems, trade, commerce, manufacturing, and movement of goods and services will ensue. If we can get these basic infrastructures right, people and businesses will organise themselves and progress on their own without the need for much hand-holding or dole-outs by the government. Malaysia boomed after they emptied their state coffer and put all their bet on the north-south highway in the late 1980s.
Complemented by the recently-launched RMA’s priority lending schemes, I can even foresee some decline in the rate of rural-Thimphu migration within the next few years – but only if we can keep this pace and wisdoms in action. The immediate aim of the national road network project should be make all dzongkhag centres within one-day driving time from the capital or from the country’s only international airport. This would not only enable access to the biggest market for local produces but also secure the country – and bring the nation closer.
The new highway
The construction of the newly-opened Gyeposhing-Nganglam highway itself was an impossible dream to begin with. The road will, firstly, benefit lower Mongar and Pema Gatsel of places such Kengkhar, Jurmey and especially Gongdue, Yangbari, Mikuri, which happens to be the poorest region of Bhutan. My immediate thought was, at least, the farmer I stayed in Gongdue Pam would now be able to sell his oranges which were rotting on the tree for lack of market. They can now dream a better life.
News reports, social media comments and vox populi have lauded the highway for the faster access through, and to India, for the three dzongkhags of Pema Gatsel, Mongar and Lhuentse. I would rather think that the bigger catch is that we are connecting the two districts of Pema Gatsel and Samdrup Jongkhar directly to Thimphu – inland.
Isn’t it high time that our mindset is inward-looking and not outward-seeking?
More than the region
The Gyalposhing-Nganglam highway will not just benefit the people in the region but the whole kingdom if our people get little more innovative and dare to dream. For example, a closer look from the Google Earth suggests that the Kuri-Gongri is probably navigable between Yangbari and Panbang. It flows gently from East to West (see map above) in that stretch instead of rushing down from north to south. Yangbari is flat and has enough space for a domestic airport. That region can truly develop as the winter getaway of Bhutan. Hopefully we can delve deeper and explore into the range of opportunities offered by the new dynamism that has just been created beyond the hydropower project planned there. This highway and the beautiful airport that was reopened at Yonphula few months back should excite people more than just as another front page news.
Gyelposhing – Nganglam highway, therefore, is not just another road.
It is a celebration of the impossible achieved and a consecration of the possibiles that are poised to emerge. I guess, the significance of the good things to come is best symbolised by His Majesty the King gracing the inauguration in person – and blessed by the universe with the magical and auspicious halo that appeared around the Sun on the day.
My homage to all those who worked, and are still working, to make these dreams a reality.
* My fateful 13-day ordeal. Day 1 – Thimphu to Chukha (landslide near the bridge). Day 2 – Chukha to Sorchen then walk to Phuntsholing with the luggage. Day 3 – Phuntsholing (no bus ticket). Day 4-6 – Phuntsholing (Ticket yes but Assam strike. Highway closed). Day 7 – Phuntsholing to Barobisa and turned back (Wrong information. Strike still on). Day 8 (Phuntsholing. Driver didn’t want to go). Day 9 – Phuntsholing – Samdrup Jongkhar. Day 10 — Samdrup Jongkhar (no seat on the bus again). Day 11 – Samdrup Jongkhar to Narphung (traffic closed. Flooding near Moshi or Tshelingkhor). Day 12 – Narphung to Khaling (bus broke down). Day 13 – Khaling to Tashigang. Finally home
My earlier two posts on food garnered a huge response. I am bit surprised because I thought that I was giving out obvious facts and information. In this article, I will delve into the red rice not only for its nutritional value but also for its broader sociological and national importance.
The red rice
In terms of nutrients and minerals, red rice is way ahead of white rice. Among others, it is rich in antioxidant called anthocyanins, which gives it the red colour. Now antioxidants are important because our body produces toxic materials such as free radicals. Free radicals causes, among many serious health conditions, the most dreaded cancer, while also altering our DNA. So eating red rice could help in reducing such risks. Red rice is also a source of magnesium, which our body loses and we need to replenish. Magnesium helps in preventing migraine, blood pressure, muscle spasm and cardiac arrests. Magnesium also regulates the calcium in maintaining healthy bones and teeth, and prevents risks of arthritis and osteoporosis. Red rice has more fibre and so it goes easy with our digestive system. Eating red rice, therefore, is much healthier as compared to eating white rice or puri-roti.
However, our rice production, and red rice in particular, is under threat from rapid urbanisation. Farmlands are going away at an exponential rate. In the best case scenario, we will still be producing, but a decreased quantity of red rice that will make this important resources inaccessible to the mass. Isn’t this bit crazy? Now against this background, it is imperative that our paddy fields in Paro, Punakha and Wangdue, the heartlands of red rice, are protected against so-called urban development.
Protecting our farmlands
Now one might think of private owners as the defaulters when we talk of uncontrolled development. Well, that’s not always the case. In fact the biggest defaulter has been the government. Just look at Changjiji in Thimphu where thousands of acres of farmland were turned into public housing. Was it not possible to build those on the slopes above Samizingkha? Similar destructions were happened in Khuruthang (Punakha) and Bajothang (Wangdue). That may be in the past. Gone. But there is now an attempt to repeat the same blunder in Paro where a large area in Hungrel Gewog (the area in the picture) is declared as Thromde. Was there a real need or a political greeds here?
My own village, Pam, in Tashigang and my land in Rangjung went down to this urbanisation madness. My poor aunt was enticed by promising higher price for the land, unrestricted loan from the banks and water, drainage, bright street lights if our village became part of the township. “Merbu nangka rang cholay mo?” (do you want to stay in darkness?) was the argument given by the proponents from Dzongkhag administration.
How many valleys and villages do we want to destroy in the name of development? Is this development by any definition? What do we eat if we replace the rice fields with concrete jungles? Cement? Japan has 130 million people but since 1952, not an inch of paddy field has gone into so-called development. Rice fields are protected by law. Ours is protected too but it seems in Bhutan the government is above the law, which is weird. If the intent is to protect rice production, whether the defaulter is government or private, the damage is the same. In China, some farmlands in Yunan and Sichuam are protected as national heritage sites. Shouldn’t we too? Protect Paro and Punakha as natural-national heritage sites?
The sociology of rice farming
Loss of paddy fields will not only affect the production and the price. There is far greater consequences to these unscrupulous actions.
Asian societies are celebrated for cohesiveness, community and collectivism where we are all live, work and grow old together. There is a growing acceptance among sociologists that one factor that influenced our collective mindset is our culture of rice growing. Rice farming requires many hands to come together during plantation as well as in harvesting. This forces people to be in social harmony and avoid conflicts and confrontations – as far as possible. By and large, communities stick with one another – because of this interdependence nature of life.
Now imagine if all farmlands are gone. Not only we would suffer from food shortage, the essence of being Bhutanese, where life revolves around the concepts of mutual trust and dependence is gone. In any case how much can we depend on the cheap unhealthy imports?
If we lose our sense of community, we will become like any other western nation – individualistic, capitalistic and profit-oriented where human relations will be purely transactional – and where every man is for himself.
I am not sure this is what we want. Or what GNH stands for.
Kharang (grained maize) was the traditional staple food in much of Eastern Bhutan until the recent decades. However, rice took over as we got “modernised” – so to stay. And the shift has been total. Because rice was eaten by the rich and affluent, everyone who moved to a better living condition hit the rice.
For some time now, though, I have turned back to including some kharang in my diet. The initial decision was mainly to stay connected with my aunt back in my village. My aunt felt a great sense of joy when I asked her for some kharang supply on an annual basis. I also bought kharang from farmers along the highway in Mongar to support them.
Recently I stumbled across interesting facts and benefits of eating kharang on the Internet. First of all, kharang digests slowly as compared to rice and so you don’t feel hungry or the urge to eat again. So for someone past 40 this is good because you easily gain weight as your metabolism declines.
Kharang also releases sugar slowly into your bloodstream, thereby saving you from becoming diabetic. Of course this works only if you don’t eat in heavy amount. Then, kharang, has less calorie, which is a good news for weight watchers. It has all the minerals and vitamins and higher Vit C content. This will boost your immune system. Lastly, it has less carbohydrates (this is important because all excess carbs are turned into fats and sugar in your body).
Furthermore, I have some serious doubts on the imported rice in terms of heavy metal content and pesticides. Excessive and uncontrolled use of pesticides and insecticides by Indian farmers* is in the news and all over the Internet. You can google for them. So instead of getting slowly poisoned, I suggest that we slowly include our own safer kharang from Eastern Bhutan.
Besides the health benefits, our dependence on imported rice would decline as rice growing in the country is becoming increasingly difficult for farm labour shortage. Maybe then we will be bit closer to our national goal of food security.
The rumour of khekpa* (head hunters and kidnappers), a myth I used to hear as a child, has again surfaced and caused panic in Eastern Bhutan. This is simply ridiculous, upsetting and unacceptable. In fact, whoever spread this rumour is criminal. The Royal Bhutan Police and the Department of Law and Order should investigate this thoroughly and put them to task – whatever might have been their reasons – and reassure the public once and for all. As western-educated adults we may laugh it off as a trivial but among the illiterate rural folks and children in boarding schools, the fear is real. Authorities must step in to restore the calm and peace.
With the country heading for another round of parliamentary elections later this year, the air should be cleaned of such nonsensical mood. We will have enough to worry or be fearful about in the second half of the year – where among many things I expect fear will again be a tactic used to sway votes.
Our perception of fear
Besides the unfounded rumours, our response to fear is something worth looking into. Why do we panic? Why do we go frenzy and irrational when we hear something that might threaten us? The answer is not simply that we are gullible. It is biological and evolutionary.
Fear is the time-tested tool that has been used by corporations, interest groups, political parties and those in power as modes of persuasion and to control the population. This is because our over-reaction to fear is biological. Our brain is composed of three main parts – the inner core, and the oldest part, is called the reptilian core, which provides us our survival instinct. Then there is the limbic layer that controls our emotion, motivation, memory and learning. The outer core is the neocortex layer, which was the last to appear as humans evolved from reptiles to apes to homo sapiens. Neocortex guides our cognitive abilities. To put it simple, the basic functions of the three parts of our brain are to regulate our fear, desire and logic.
When we see or hear any danger, our reptilian brain kicks off and takes control of the whole brain, shutting off the limbic and the neocortex cores. What happens is that we can neither feel or reason out at that instant. It is mother nature’s way to protect us from any threats to our survival. Say you are walking in the jungle and you hear a noice, your reaction is to fearbe the worst and protect yourself. If you are doing the same forest at night, every tree becomes a ghost and every twig looks like a snake.
This discovery of how our brain reacts was however used by politicians and public relations experts to further their own benefits. Nazism was built around the fear of jews, gypsies and the foreigners. The whole American gun industry is built on the “need to protect” yourself and your family from the enemy, which paradoxically includes the State and the government too. Edward Barney, the father of public relations industry, used female emancipation to be free to sell cigarette to women, which then simply doubled the number of smokers in the US. The whole capitalistic marketing campaigns are now either based on fear or desire.
Two examples are:
“Do you know that tuberculosis kills more than HIV/AIDS? Vaccine your child today”,
“Research shows that men are more attracted to fair-skinned women. YYYYY guarantees you a super white skin in 14 days”.
These types of advertisements still rule our world. No TV commercial is based on logic or rationality.
Danger of living in fear
Prolonged exposure to fear, anxiety and distress over an extended period of time, however, will have severe negative effects and consequences. They stress our brain and leaves an indelible scar. The persistent doses of negative stimuli, in the long run, then could manifest in violence, cynicism or distrust of each other. The deaths from guns in the US can be explained by this theory. People easily get ticked off for nothing. What is happening in the brain, is that over such a period the reptilian brain is getting larger than the neocortex. By the way, our brain expands and contract from our birth till our death. It doesn’t stop growing like our other parts of our body but the growth of one layer often occur at the cost of the other layers.
With modern technology and lifestyle age-old myths are supposed to die. But it seems the possibilities of sharing rumours on WeChat has proved otherwise. Hopefully we can put to rest such fear-inducing rumours.
* NB – to parents and educators
1. Khekpa, apparently is a mispronunciation of Khetpa, which means people from the village of Khet – a settlement in Tawang in Arunachal Pradesh. In ancient time the village, it is believed, was one of the most backward that practiced sorcery and robbed and killed Bhutanese traders. In other words, they we were barbaric. However, Bhutanese people exaggerated and also stereotyped them as child kidnappers and head hunters. Today the village is affluent with road, electricity, hospital, schools etc and welcomes Bhutanese. However, old myths are hard to die – especially those instilling fears.
2. Do not use fear tactics to discipline children. It does moreharm than good – often leaving a childhood trauma. Besides, they will never respond well to, or respect, your demands and requirements. Aim for the neocortex brain by trying to reason out and explain the logic and consequences instead of emotional black mails and fear tactics. No child is to small to understand the consequences of their actions.